Kubelet certificate rotation

Edit This Page. The kubelet uses certificates for authenticating to the Kubernetes API. By default, these certificates are issued with one year expiration so that they do not need to be renewed too frequently.

Kubernetes 1. Once the new certificate is available, it will be used for authenticating connections to the Kubernetes API. The kubelet process accepts an argument --rotate-certificates that controls if the kubelet will automatically request a new certificate as the expiration of the certificate currently in use approaches.

The kube-controller-manager process accepts an argument --experimental-cluster-signing-duration that controls how long certificates will be issued for. When a kubelet starts up, if it is configured to bootstrap using the --bootstrap-kubeconfig flagit will use its initial certificate to connect to the Kubernetes API and issue a certificate signing request.

You can view the status of certificate signing requests using:. Initially a certificate signing request from the kubelet on a node will have a status of Pending. If the certificate signing requests meets specific criteria, it will be auto approved by the controller manager, then it will have a status of Approved.

Next, the controller manager will sign a certificate, issued for the duration specified by the --experimental-cluster-signing-duration parameter, and the signed certificate will be attached to the certificate signing requests. The kubelet will retrieve the signed certificate from the Kubernetes API and write that to disk, in the location specified by --cert-dir.

Then the kubelet will use the new certificate to connect to the Kubernetes API.

kubelet certificate rotation

As the expiration of the signed certificate approaches, the kubelet will automatically issue a new certificate signing request, using the Kubernetes API. Again, the controller manager will automatically approve the certificate request and attach a signed certificate to the certificate signing request. The kubelet will retrieve the new signed certificate from the Kubernetes API and write that to disk. Then it will update the connections it has to the Kubernetes API to reconnect using the new certificate.

Thanks for the feedback. If you have a specific, answerable question about how to use Kubernetes, ask it on Stack Overflow. Open an issue in the GitHub repo if you want to report a problem or suggest an improvement. Kubernetes v1. The version you are currently viewing is a static snapshot. For up-to-date documentation, see the latest version.

Manual Rotation of Certificates in Rancher Kubernetes Clusters

Edit This Page Certificate Rotation This page shows how to enable and configure certificate rotation for the kubelet. Before you begin Overview Enabling client certificate rotation Understanding the certificate rotation configuration Before you begin Kubernetes version 1. Enabling client certificate rotation The kubelet process accepts an argument --rotate-certificates that controls if the kubelet will automatically request a new certificate as the expiration of the certificate currently in use approaches.

Understanding the certificate rotation configuration When a kubelet starts up, if it is configured to bootstrap using the --bootstrap-kubeconfig flagit will use its initial certificate to connect to the Kubernetes API and issue a certificate signing request. You can view the status of certificate signing requests using: kubectl get csr. Code is well tested. Enabling the feature is considered safe.

Enabled by default.Edit This Page. The kubelet uses certificates for authenticating to the Kubernetes API. By default, these certificates are issued with one year expiration so that they do not need to be renewed too frequently. Kubernetes 1. Once the new certificate is available, it will be used for authenticating connections to the Kubernetes API.

The kubelet process accepts an argument --rotate-certificates that controls if the kubelet will automatically request a new certificate as the expiration of the certificate currently in use approaches. The kube-controller-manager process accepts an argument --experimental-cluster-signing-duration that controls how long certificates will be issued for.

When a kubelet starts up, if it is configured to bootstrap using the --bootstrap-kubeconfig flagit will use its initial certificate to connect to the Kubernetes API and issue a certificate signing request.

You can view the status of certificate signing requests using:.

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Initially a certificate signing request from the kubelet on a node will have a status of Pending. If the certificate signing requests meets specific criteria, it will be auto approved by the controller manager, then it will have a status of Approved.

Next, the controller manager will sign a certificate, issued for the duration specified by the --experimental-cluster-signing-duration parameter, and the signed certificate will be attached to the certificate signing requests. The kubelet will retrieve the signed certificate from the Kubernetes API and write that to disk, in the location specified by --cert-dir. Then the kubelet will use the new certificate to connect to the Kubernetes API. As the expiration of the signed certificate approaches, the kubelet will automatically issue a new certificate signing request, using the Kubernetes API.

Again, the controller manager will automatically approve the certificate request and attach a signed certificate to the certificate signing request.

The kubelet will retrieve the new signed certificate from the Kubernetes API and write that to disk. Then it will update the connections it has to the Kubernetes API to reconnect using the new certificate. Thanks for the feedback. If you have a specific, answerable question about how to use Kubernetes, ask it on Stack Overflow. Open an issue in the GitHub repo if you want to report a problem or suggest an improvement. Kubernetes v1. The version you are currently viewing is a static snapshot.

For up-to-date documentation, see the latest version. Edit This Page Certificate Rotation This page shows how to enable and configure certificate rotation for the kubelet. Before you begin Overview Enabling client certificate rotation Understanding the certificate rotation configuration Before you begin Kubernetes version 1. Enabling client certificate rotation The kubelet process accepts an argument --rotate-certificates that controls if the kubelet will automatically request a new certificate as the expiration of the certificate currently in use approaches.

Understanding the certificate rotation configuration When a kubelet starts up, if it is configured to bootstrap using the --bootstrap-kubeconfig flagit will use its initial certificate to connect to the Kubernetes API and issue a certificate signing request. You can view the status of certificate signing requests using: kubectl get csr. Create an Issue Edit This Page.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

Have a question about this project? Sign up for a free GitHub account to open an issue and contact its maintainers and the community. Already on GitHub? Sign in to your account. One-line feature description can be used as a release note : Rotation of the server TLS certificate on the kubelet.

Primary contact assignee : jcbsmpsn. Reviewers from multiple companies preferred: mikedanese awly. Yes, initial bootstrapping of the server cert will be covered by this. Would you like a separate one, or just checking that feature wasn't lost in the shuffle?

Going to merge this into Actually, I wouldn't. There's more work to do here with determining which SANs a node is allowed to serve. Is there no docs that need update? Is beta targeted or will this be still in alpha? Hey there! Is there any chance I could have you open up a docs PR against the release If this feature does not require docs, could you please update the features tracking spreadsheet to reflect it?

Marcel-Lambacher :. In response to this :. Instructions for interacting with me using PR comments are available here. Hi folks, Kubernetes 1. If not, can you please remove it from the 1. We are also now encouraging that every new enhancement aligns with a KEP. If a KEP has been created, please link to it in the original post. Please take the opportunity to develop a KEP. Hello jcbsmpsnI'm the Enhancement Lead for 1. Please let me know so it can be tracked properly and added to the spreadsheet.

This will also require an official KEP to be included. Please work on that first.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Have a question about this project? Sign up for a free GitHub account to open an issue and contact its maintainers and the community. Already on GitHub? Sign in to your account.

Feature Description

Since this is part of the 1. CSRs aren't properly garbage collected as of 1. Hoping to address this in 1. We're planning to enable it via the feature gate. As we're doing this transition anyway, I think it's reasonable to enable now.

Feature gate is enabled by default. This defaults to false because the actual CSR kubernetes resources in the certificates API are never removed, even if they're expired, denied, or even ignored for some period of time. Then we're planning to set --rotate-certificates for the reasons I mentioned above : Makes sense? CSRs aren't garbage collected in 1.

This means after 3 years you still only have around 4N CSRs. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. New issue.

kubelet certificate rotation

Jump to bottom. Make sure that Kubelet Certificate Rotation is enabled in v1. Milestone v1. Copy link Quote reply.

Face Your X.509 Fears: Automating Certificate Rotation for Cloud Foundry - Iryna Shustava, Pivotal

We should enable that behavior by default. Support certificate rotation This comment has been minimized. Sign in to view. Member Author.Kubernetes clusters use multiple certificates to provide both encryption of traffic to the Kubernetes components as well as authentication of these requests. In Rancher v2. The same applies to Kubernetes clusters provisioned by v0. If you created a Rancher-launched or RKE-provisioned Kubernetes cluster about 1 year ago, you need to rotate the certificates.

If no action is taken, then when the certificates expire, the cluster will go into an error state and the Kubernetes API for the cluster will become unavailable. Rancher recommends that you rotate the certificates before they expire to avoid an unexpected service interruption.

The rotation is a one time operation, and the newly-generated certificates will be valid for the next 10 years.

kubelet certificate rotation

The instructions below detail how to rotate the certificates in both Rancher-launched and RKE-provisioned clusters, both before expiry when certificates are still valid, and also in the event that the certificates have already expired.

Rotating Kubernetes certificates may result in your cluster being temporarily unavailable as components are restarted. Rancher v2. If you are unable to upgrade your Rancher v2. These versions contain certificate rotation support via the API, and detailed steps for this can be found in the documentation.

To rotate the certificates on a Rancher-launched cluster for which certificates are still valid, follow these steps:. After following these steps, the certificates will be rotated and will have a validity of 10 years. If your Rancher-launched Kubernetes cluster is already in an error state because the certificates have expired, follow these steps to rotate the certificate:.

If this file is absent, perform the following manual copy:. To rotate certificates, browse to the cluster in the Rancher UI, click the vertical ellipses, click Rotate Certificatesselect Rotate all service certificates and click Save. If the UI shows no activity on the cluster while the rotation is happening, and if the log still reports Expired certperform the steps described in Rancher Issue After the rotation is finished, browse to the Nodes view for the cluster within the Rancher UI and check the state of Worker nodes.

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If the state is not Activedo the following:. Copy the following certificates from a Kubernetes control plane node to each worker node, under the same location:. Before conducting the certificate rotation, please verify the presence of the kube-apiserver-requestheader-ca. To rotate the certificates on an RKE v0. If your RKE v0. Published: June 14, Updated: September 11, Introduction Kubernetes clusters use multiple certificates to provide both encryption of traffic to the Kubernetes components as well as authentication of these requests.

Clusters Launched by Rancher Rancher v2. This refreshes the cluster state and configurations. To do so, you can either upgrade your cluster to a newer Kubernetes version or simply change one of the existing parameters on a cluster to trigger the cluster reconciliation process via RKE. To upgrade the Kubernetes version, browse to the cluster in the Rancher UI, click the vertical ellipses, and click Edit. To trigger reconciliation by changing a parameter with minimal impact, browse to the cluster in the Rancher UI, click the vertical ellipses and click Edit.

Rotate the certificates: Rancher v2. To do so, browse to the cluster in the Rancher UI, click the vertical ellipses, click Rotate Certificatesselect Rotate all service certificates and click Save. Alex Seymour. Get started with Rancher.Edit This Page.

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In a Kubernetes cluster, the components on the worker nodes - kubelet and kube-proxy - need to communicate with Kubernetes master components, specifically kube-apiserver. In order to ensure that communication is kept private, not interfered with, and ensure that each component of the cluster is talking to another trusted component, we strongly recommend using client TLS certificates on nodes.

The normal process of bootstrapping these components, especially worker nodes that need certificates so they can communicate safely with kube-apiserver, can be a challenging process as it is often outside of the scope of Kubernetes and requires significant additional work.

This in turn, can make it challenging to initialize or scale a cluster. In order to simplify the process, beginning in version 1. The proposal can be found here. This document describes the process of node initialization, how to set up TLS client certificate bootstrapping for kubelets, and how it works.

The TLS Bootstrapping described in this document is intended to simplify, and partially or even completely automate, steps 3 onwards, as these are the most common when initializing or scaling a cluster.

The rest of this document describes the necessary steps to configure TLS Bootstrapping, and its limitations. To configure for TLS bootstrapping and optional automatic approval, you must configure options on the following components:. As without bootstrapping, you will need a Certificate Authority CA key and certificate.

As without bootstrapping, these will be used to sign the kubelet certificate. As before, it is your responsibility to distribute them to master nodes. All Kubernetes components that use these certificates - kubelet, kube-apiserver, kube-controller-manager - assume the key and certificate to be PEM-encoded.

This is normal for all client certificate authentication. In order for the bootstrapping kubelet to connect to kube-apiserver and request a certificate, it must first authenticate to the server. You can use any authenticator that can authenticate the kubelet. Bootstrap tokens are a simpler and more easily managed method to authenticate kubelets, and do not require any additional flags when starting kube-apiserver. Using bootstrap tokens is currently beta as of Kubernetes version 1.

Whichever method you choose, the requirement is that the kubelet be able to authenticate as a user with the rights to:. A kubelet authenticating using bootstrap tokens is authenticated as a user in the group system:bootstrapperswhich is the standard method to use. As this feature matures, you should ensure tokens are bound to a Role Based Access Control RBAC policy which limits requests using the bootstrap token strictly to client requests related to certificate provisioning.

With RBAC in place, scoping the tokens to a group allows for great flexibility. Bootstrap tokens are described in detail here. These are tokens that are stored as secrets in the Kubernetes cluster, and then issued to the individual kubelet.

You can use a single token for an entire cluster, or issue one per worker node. Due to its Typenamespace and namekube-apiserver recognizes it as a special token, and grants anyone authenticating with that token special bootstrap rights, notably treating them as a member of the system:bootstrappers group. This fulfills a basic requirement for TLS bootstrapping. The details for creating the secret are available here. There are multiple ways you can generate a token.

For example:. The token file should look like the following example, where the first three values can be anything and the quoted group name should be as depicted:. See docs here for further details. Now that the bootstrapping node is authenticated as part of the system:bootstrappers group, it needs to be authorized to create a certificate signing request CSR as well as retrieve it when done.Periodically, you may need to rotate those certificates for security or policy reasons.

For example, you may have a policy to rotate all your certificates every 90 days. This article requires that you are running the Azure CLI version 2. Run az --version to find the version. AKS clusters created prior to March have certificates that expire after two years.

Any cluster created after March or any cluster that has its certificates rotated have Cluster CA certificates that expire after 30 years.

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All other certificates expire after two years. To verify when your cluster was created, use kubectl get nodes to see the Age of your node pools.

Additionally, you can check the expiration date of your cluster's certificate. For example, the following command displays the certificate details for the myAKSCluster cluster.

Rotating your certificates using az aks rotate-certs can cause up to 30 minutes of downtime for your AKS cluster. Use az aks get-credentials to sign in to your AKS cluster.

This command also downloads and configures the kubectl client certificate on your local machine. It may take up to 30 minutes for az aks rotate-certs to complete. If the command fails before completing, use az aks show to verify the status of the cluster is Certificate Rotating. If the cluster is in a failed state, rerun az aks rotate-certs to rotate your certificates again.

Verify that the old certificates are no longer valid by running a kubectl command. Since you have not updated the certificates used by kubectlyou will see an error. For example:. Update the certificate used by kubectl by running az aks get-credentials. Verify the certificates have been updated by running a kubectl command, which will now succeed. If you have any services that run on top of AKS, such as Azure Dev Spacesyou may need to update certificates related to those services as well.

This article showed you how to automatically rotate your cluster's certificates, CAs, and SAs. You may also leave feedback directly on GitHub. Skip to main content. Exit focus mode. Learn at your own pace.